Jatin Tayal
2 min readAug 4, 2023

Recently, I was reading on the techniques to improve performance and scalability while querying databases and read in depth on a popular technique for it — Sharding !! Sharing my learnings on the same -

Sharding is used in database management which involves breaking a large database into smaller, more manageable pieces called shards. Each shard contains a subset of the data, and together, they form a distributed database.

Why use sharding?
One of the main benefits of sharding is improved performance. By breaking up a large database into smaller pieces, queries can be executed in parallel across multiple shards, resulting in faster query response times. Additionally, sharding can help increase scalability by allowing additional shards to be added as the database grows.

How does sharding work?
In a sharded database, data is distributed across multiple servers, with each server responsible for storing a subset of the data. The sharding strategy used depends on the type of data being stored and the specific requirements of the application.
One common approach is to shard based on a specific field or attribute, such as user ID or geographic location. This ensures that related data is stored together in the same shard, which can improve query performance.

Challenges with sharding
While sharding can improve database performance and scalability, it also introduces some challenges. For example, maintaining data consistency across shards can be difficult, especially if data needs to be updated across multiple shards simultaneously. Additionally, managing a sharded database can be complex, requiring additional resources and expertise to ensure that the database remains stable and performs well.

While sharding introduces some challenges, the overall benefits are significant, making it an important tool for managing large and complex databases.